A study was undertaken to examine the potential role of immunodiagnostic methods in determining successful chemotherapy in schistosomiasis. Fifteen rhesus monkeys were infected with 1, 500 Schistosoma mansoni (Puerto Rico strain) cercariae, and 10 of the monkeys were then treated with a curative dose of praziquantel 13 weeks after infection. Five monkeys remained untreated. One monkey was not successfully cured, as confirmed by the presence of both male and female worms at the time of perfusion. Serum samples were longitudinally collected and specific Ig isotypes were quantified with an adult microsomal antigen of S. mansoni using the FAST®-ELISA. Specific isotypes were detected with monoclonal antibodies specific for each human Ig isotype, followed by a peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse Ig. Longitudinally, all monkeys showed similar isotype patterns. Isotypes increased for the first nine weeks following infection, and then began to decrease. Ten to 14 days following treatment, all isotypes increased. The Ig isotype responses of all monkeys followed classic patterns of isotype expression. A ratio of pretreatment (week 13) IgG1 absorbance values to post-treatment IgG1 absorbance values was generated for each monkey. All successfully treated monkeys, determined to be worm-free by perfusion, had IgG1 ratios at week 53 greater than 2.4 (range 2.4–181). The untreated monkeys and the single monkey that was a treatment failure had IgG1 ratios less than 2.1 (range 0.09–2.05) for the same time period.