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Five hundred thirty six Sudanese schoolchildren with Schistosoma mansoni infection were treated at random with either 20 mg or 40mg/kg praziquantel. Seven months later 420 children could be reinvestigated by ultrasonography. Reduction of egg excretion and reversibility of sonographically-proven periportal fibrosis (PF) was not significantly different in the two groups. Schistosoma mansoni-induced PF grade II decreased from 22.9% to 6.7% and grade III from 5.2% to 1.6%. An increased prevalence of PF grade I, from 10% to 29.8% of the investigated patients, was observed. This increase was caused partly by a downshifting of patients who had PF II (n = 45) and PF III (n = 8) before therapy, but also by patients who developed PF I in the seven months after therapy (n = 56). The overall percentage of patients with PF before and after treatment was 38.1%. Of 420 children, 17.4% increased in their PF grade, 55% remained at the same level and 27.6% improved. Children younger than 11 years of age had a higher rate of complete reversibility than older ones. The percentage of patients with hepatomegaly decreased significantly (11.6% to 6.9%; p = 0.001). The rate of splenomegaly remained unchanged. It was concluded that within seven months therapy with praziquantel resulted in a considerable qualitative improvement of PF in Sudanese schoolchildren with S. mansoni infection.