Aotus nancymai were immunized with the 4-mer, 8-mer, and 11-mer repeat peptides of the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen molecule of Plasmodium falciparum conjugated to diphtheria toxoid with muramyl dipeptide (MDP) as adjuvant. Immunization failed to induce protective immunity against the Uganda Palo Alto strain of P. falciparum as judged by maximum levels of parasitemia of immunized monkeys relative to those of controls. The fused polypeptide FPAg632, when combined with MDP, also failed to induce protective immunity. However, the maximum level of parasitemia and serologic response to the 11-mer peptide were inversely correlated. The safety of the use of MDP was evident.