Plasmodium Falciparum-Infected Anopheles Stephensi Inconsistently Transmit Malaria to Humans

Leland S. RickmanNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Trevor R. JonesNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Gary W. LongNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Scott PaparelloNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Imogene SchneiderNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Christopher F. PaulNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Richard L. BeaudoinNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Stephen L. HoffmanNational Naval Medical Center, Naval Medical Research Institute, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Bethesda, Maryland

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Malaria was transmitted to only 5 of 10 volunteers bitten by 1–2 Anopheles stephensi carrying sporozoites of the 3D7 clone of the NF54 strain of Plasmodium falciparum in their salivary glands. Parasites were detectable by culture in blood taken 7–10 days following exposure and by thick blood film 14–16.5 days after exposure. Infectivity did not correlate with the numbers of sporozoites in the salivary glands.

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