Preparation of an Attenuated Dengue 4 (341750 Carib) Virus Vaccine

II. Safety and Immunogenicity in Humans

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  • Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, U.S. Army Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Washington, DC
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To determine safety and immunogenicity, a single 0.5 ml dose of a monovalent live-attenuated dengue (DEN) 4 (341750 Carib) vaccine was given sc to 3 groups of flavivirus nonimmune volunteers in increasing concentrations. Two recipients received 103 plaque forming units (PFU)/dose (1:100 dilution of stock vaccine). One remained asymptomatic, but became viremic between days 12 and 15, experienced a mild elevation of temperature (37.4°C), and developed DEN-4 specific antibody. Neither recipient of the 104 PFU became infected. Eight volunteers then received undiluted vaccine (105 PFU). Viremia and antibody (neutralizing, hemagglutination inhibition, and IgM) developed in 5 of the 8 (63%). These 5 volunteers also developed a scarcely noticeable macular, blanching rash and minimal temperature elevations (37.3, 38.1, 37, 37.9, and 37.9°C). Clinically insignificant decreases in total white blood cell, lymphocyte, and polymorphonuclear cell counts and an elevation in mononuclear cell counts occurred in association with viremia. This vaccine is safe, reasonably immunogenic, and suitable for further evaluation.