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The use of an Immunoassay for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax circumsporozoite (CS) antigens in anophelines has recently incriminated other malaria vectors besides Anopheles darlingi in the Brazilian Amazon. In this study we analyzed 12,336 field-collected anophelines from endemic areas in Rondonia for plasmodial infection. Sixty-one specimens from 6 species were positive: 47 An. darlingi, 5 An. triannulatus, 4 An. albitarsis, 2 An. braziliensis, 2 An. strodei, and 1 An. oswaldoi. As concerns the species, 41 anopheles harbored P. falciparum and 20 were infected with P. vivax. An. darlingi was the most important local vector, as it was the one most frequently found infected and the only one clearly related to areas where malaria transmission was being recorded.