The status of schistosomiasis in Cameroon was examined in a nationwide survey of 5th grade schoolchildren. Five hundred twelve schools were surveyed; 19,524 urine and 22,166 stool samples were examined. The 3 northern provinces, which comprised 29% of the population, had 87% of all urinary and 82% of all intestinal cases. These provinces have a low seasonal rainfall. The presence of temporary bodies of water and of molluscan intermediate hosts adapted to this environment permits intense transmission of schistosomiasis haematobium and mansoni. In the rest of the country, the distribution of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni was highly focal. S. intercalatum endemic areas were restricted to the equatorial forest and were small with low prevalences and intensities.