Genes coding for the E and NS1 glycoproteins of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) were cloned into baculovirus expression vectors. The recombinant baculoviruses obtained were used to infect Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The infected cells were used to immunize C57/B mice, which were then challenged with live JEV. Survival was increased from about 30% in unimmunized mice to 70% in E and polyprotein recipients (P < 0.005), but was not increased in NS1 recipients despite the development of antibody against NS1 by these mice. Virus neutralizing antibody was demonstrated in 18/20 E glycoprotein recipients and 15/20 polyprotein recipients. The baculovirus expressed E glycoprotein stimulated antibody which was protective and neutralizing in this system.