A Review of the Geographic Distribution and Epidemiology of Leishmaniasis in the New World

Gabriel Grimaldi Jr.Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Yale University School of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Robert B. TeshInstituto Oswaldo Cruz, Yale University School of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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Diane McMahon-PrattInstituto Oswaldo Cruz, Yale University School of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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A review of the epidemiologic aspects of the New World leishmaniases, including their known geographic distribution, etiologic agents, zoonotic reservoirs, and insect vectors, based on biological and molecular characterization of Leishmania isolates is presented. Data summarized in this paper on parasite taxonomy and geographic distribution come from our studies of > 1,000 New World Leishmania isolates identified by species-specific monoclonal antibodies using an indirect radioimmune binding assay and from scientific literature.

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