Presence of the Schistosome Circulating Anodic Antigen (CAA) in Urine of Patients with Schistosoma Mansoni or S. Haematobium Infections

Niels De JongeState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Yvonne E. FilliéState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Gerard W. HilberathState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Frederik W. KrijgerState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Christian LengelerState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Donald H. De SavignyState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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Nick G. Van VlietState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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André M. DeelderState University of Leiden, Swiss Tropical Institute Field Laboratory, Leiden, The Netherlands

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We investigated the presence of the circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in the urine of schistosomiasis patients. This genus specific antigen was hitherto demonstrated only in the serum of schistosomiasis patients. The urine of 80 patients with Schistosoma mansoni infections, 33 patients with S. haematobium infections, and 2 patients with mixed S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections were screened by a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CAA was demonstrated in 81% of those with intestinal schistosomiasis and in 97% of those with urinary schistosomiasis. CAA titers were < 1:0.2–1:51.2. Results were compared with circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) titers in urine obtained in an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA). CCA was generally not detectable in the urine of patients with S. haematobium infection, but was demonstrated in the urine of 85% of the patients with S. mansoni infection. Both CAA titers and CCA titers correlated positively with the number of S. mansoni eggs excreted in the feces, but CAA titers did not show a significant correlation with the number of S. haematobium eggs in urine. Both antigen titers showed a moderate correlation with the serum CAA level in schistosomiasis mansoni. The discovery of CAA in the urine of the majority of schistosomiasis patients tested suggests the use of urine samples for non-invasive immunodiagnosis of the disease.

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