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Serum specimens from Puerto Rican residents were tested for antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) using an enzyme immunoassay, Western immunoblot, and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. Of 1,279 specimens obtained during a dengue virus surveillance program in 1986 and 1987, 3 (0.2%) tested positive; an additional 11 were indeterminate. Of 602 specimens obtained from blood donors in Ponce in 1987, 1 (0.2%) was positive; an additional specimen was indeterminate. Of 21 persons hospitalized for problems related to intravenous drug use in 1986 and 1987, 1 (5%) tested positive for HTLV-I antibodies.