Immunization of Saimiri Sciureus Boliviensis with Recombinant Vaccines Based on the Circumsporozoite Protein of Plasmodium Vivax

William E. Collins Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Ruth S. Nussenzweig Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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W. Ripley Ballou Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Trenton K. Ruebush II Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Elizabeth H. Nardin Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Jeffrey D. Chulay Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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William R. Majarian Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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James F. Young Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Gail F. Wasserman Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Ian Bathurst Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Helen L. Gibson Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Philip J. Barr Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Stephen L. Hoffman Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Steven S. Wasserman Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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J. Roger Broderson Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Jimmie C. Skinner Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Patricia M. Procell Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Valerie K. Filipski Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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Carla L. Wilson Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia; New York University Medical Center, New York, New York; Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC; Smith Kline and French Laboratories, Swedeland, Pennsylvania; Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California; Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland; and University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland

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We report a trial in squirrel monkeys of 2 recombinant Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine candidates based on the circumsporozoite (CS) protein. One recombinant (NSI81 V20), produced in Escherichia coli, contains the repeat region of the CS protein. The other (VIVAX-1) recombinant is yeast-derived and contains the entire repeat domain and part of the surrounding N-terminal and C-terminal regions. Both antigens were administered with alum and muramyl tripeptide as adjuvants. No formulations caused toxic side effects. Both antigens, when administered with alum, induced high levels of sporozoite antibodies in all animals. Another group of animals was immunized with irradiated sporozoites alone. Upon challenge, a few immunized animals did not develop detectable parasitemia and others developed parasitemia only after a prolonged prepatent period. Monkeys immunized with irradiated sporozoites had higher levels of antibody but no increased protection. There was no correlation between protection and either antibody level or the in vitro proliferation of lymphocytes in response to the antigens. This is the first time P. vivax sporozoite vaccines have been tested in monkeys with a subsequent sporozoite challenge.

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