A cross-sectional seroepidemiological survey seeking hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly was carried out in isolated Yanomami hamlets in Amazonas Territory in Venezuela. All 110 inhabitants > 1 year of age were evaluated clinically and 98 were studied immunologically.
The spleen index for individuals > 10 years of age was 44%. Only 3 patients had Plasmodium spp. on thick blood smears. All had serological evidence of infection with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty-three patients were considered to show hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly.
Clinical manifestations of the syndrome did not differ from those described in other parts of the world.