Nodules in the Conjunctiva, Bung-Eye, and Bulge-Eye in Africa Caused by Mansonella Perstans

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  • Division of Geographic Pathology, Department of Infectious and Parasitic Disease Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC 20306-6000
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Eight patients from Uganda, Sudan, Nigeria, and Zaire presented with swelling of the eyelids, proptosis, or conjunctival granulomas. In 5 patients the cause was Mansonella perstans; in 1, it was a Wuchereria bancrofti-like worm; and in 2, an unidentifiable worm. The morphologic features and histopathologic changes in the conjunctiva and periorbital fat are described and illustrated.