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An indirect immunoperoxidase test was compared with an indirect fluorescent antibody test and the Weil-Felix OXK test for serodiagnosis of scrub typhus by measuring the rickettsial antigen specific activity of IgG, IgM, and whole globulin. Acute and convalescent sera from 50 Rickettsia tsutsugamushi isolate-positive scrub typhus patients and from 45 febrile patients diagnosed as having diseases other than scrub typhus were tested. The receiver operating characteristic for each test showed that the indirect immunoperoxidase and indirect fluorescent antibody tests were more sensitive and specific than the Weil-Felix test using convalescent and acute as well as paired sera. The indirect immunoperoxidase test showed no cross-reactivity when R. tstusugamushi antigen was tested against sera collected from patients living outside the scrub typhus-endemic area with diseases other than scrub typhus. The indirect immunoperoxidase and indirect fluorescent antibody tests were comparable in measured response to R. tsutsugamushi, R. typhi, and TT-118 (spotted fever group) antigen. Thus the indirect immunoperoxidase test represents a sensitive, specific, reproducible, and practical semiquantitative test for rickettsial disease diagnosis.