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Present strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of arbovirus diseases in western North America have been developed from more than 4 decades of epidemiological research and development of mosquito control technology. Methods of prediction of outbreaks remain imprecise, although our understanding of sources of variation associated with indicators used for prediction is improving. Well organized and funded systematic mosquito abatement remains the most effective method of prevention of human cases of mosquito-borne virus disease, although emergency methods must be employed when outbreaks are imminent. The development of information management systems technology, use of recent developments of sampling theory, and research on vector competency and related areas should permit much better precision in estimates of impending outbreaks.