Overwintering Mechanisms of Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in Temperate Climates

Leon Rosen Arbovirus Program, Pacific Biomedical Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822

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It can be concluded from the data cited that transovarial transmission is a plausible explanation for the overwintering of mosquito-borne bunyaviruses of the California serogroup. Vertical transmission of mosquito-borne flaviviruses could explain the overwintering of this group of viruses, but this is far from having been established. At present, the mechanism by which mosquito-borne alphaviruses pass the winter is obscure.