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Eosinophil chemotactic activity in sera from mice undergoing an acute stage of schistosomiasis japonica and mansoni was examined. Eosinophilotactic activity in the serum was dependent on the dose and time of infection. Eosinophilotactic activity in sera from S. japonicum-infected mice was higher than that from S. mansoni-infected mice when they were compared at the comparable dose and time of infection. After gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200, eosinophilotactic activity in sera from mice infected with 30 cercariae of S. japonicum for 5 weeks was detected in the high molecular weight component. On the other hand, when sera from mice infected with 30 cercariae of S. japonicum for 8 weeks was chromatographed through Sephadex G-200 columns, eosinophilotactic activity was segregated into high (>455,000) and low (<13,000) molecular weight components. High molecular weight ECF in sera from mice infected with 30 cercariae of S. japonicum for 8 weeks had high affinity to Con A, and was stable to heating or pronase digestion, but was sensitive to periodate oxidation, indicating its polysaccharide or glycoprotein nature. This high molecular weight ECF could be adsorbed by, and eluted from immunoaffinity beads coated with rabbit IgG anti-S. japonicum adult worm antibody. Thus, at least some part of circulating high molecular weight ECF would be derived from adult parasites.