Three hundred twenty-four individuals in a farming village located in the Nile Delta of Egypt were serially tested for hepatitis markers and Schistosoma mansoni to determine whether there is an increased risk of hepatitis B in persons infected with schistosomiasis. One-half of the subjects had stools positive for S. mansoni. Thirty-seven percent of the individuals had been infected with hepatitis B, and 3% were chronic HBsAg carriers. No statistical association was found between S. mansoni infection and hepatitis B infection, including chronic hepatitis B. Although there was no evidence of an association between these 2 pathogens, larger nonhospital based studies are needed to resolve this question.