V. Evaluation of Cross-Immunity against Type 1 Dengue Fever in Human Subjects Convalescent from Subclinical Natural Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection and Vaccinated with 17D Strain Yellow Fever Vaccine
We compared the sensitivities of bone marrow aspirate culture (BMAC), 3 ml 1:4 and 8 ml 1:10 blood-to-broth ratio blood cultures (BC), 8 ml streptokinase clot culture (STKCC) and rectal swab culture (RSC) for isolating Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi A from 61 patients with typhoid or paratyphoid fever in Jakarta, Indonesia. BMAC (92%) was significantly more sensitive than 8 ml BC (62%), 8 ml STKCC (51%), 3 ml BC (44%), RSC (56%) and the 19 ml combination of all three BC methods (71%). The combination of the three BC methods and RSC had an isolation rate of 87%. In Jakarta the diagnosis of typhoid fever cannot be confidently excluded unless a BMAC is done.