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The Indochina I/CDC strain of Plasmodium falciparum was linearly passaged in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) of 3 phenotypes. Splenectomized monkeys of Guyanan and Peruvian type developed high density parasitemias, but considerably lower than the mean peak parasitemia (> 106/mm3) in Bolivian phenotype squirrel monkeys. Spleenintact Bolivian and Peruvian squirrel monkeys all developed potentially lethal infections after linear passage of parasites from Saimiri and Aotus. For the evaluation of induced immunity to P. falciparum, the Indochina I/CDC strain in Saimiri will be a valuable model system.