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The effects of chloroquine, amodiaquine and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine (SP) (Fansidar) on the infection rate and density of Plasmodium flaciparum gametocytes were studied in 198 patients with falciparum malaria from an area in the Punjab where malaria is endemic but seasonally transmitted. One month following treatment of 100 patients, SP had reduced the gametocyte carrier rate from 37% to 6% and the mean gametocyte density from 80 to 1.4 per mm3 of blood. Chloroquine and amodiaquine were much less effective. Since SP has no gametocytocidal properties and the reduction in gametocytes coincided with clearance of asexual parasitemias, gametocytes were probably reduced subsequent to the cure of the asexual malaria infections. If used during the nontransmission season, SP might be an effective component of an integrated program for reducing malaria transmission in the Punjab and other areas where 4-aminoquinoline-resistant and SP-sensitive falciparum malaria exists.