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Coexistence of Chagas' disease with leishmaniasis and T. rangeli infection in endemic areas and cross-reactivity between corresponding etiological agents can confuse the immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease. A discriminative serological test could therefore represent a major advance in specific immunodiagnosis. A competitive antibody enzyme immunoassay against a component 5-enriched preparation, using a T. cruzi species-specific monoclonal antibody has allowed development of a specific serodiagnosis of Chagas' disease with high sensitivity (96.6% in undetermined and chronic phases of infection). This test can differentiate Chagas' disease from other cross-reacting parasitic diseases in areas where concomitant infections are unknown or suspected.