Fansidar (SP), a combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine, was evaluated for its usefulness as a curative agent for treating individual malaria patients and for reducing the community reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in 4 villages near Lahore, Pakistan, where resistance of 4-aminoquinolines has recently been reported. Following the end of the major malaria transmission season, we carried out a month-long mass treatment campaign during which SP was given to all available villagers who had parasitemias detected during a concurrent house-to-house malaria blood film survey. Of the 82 falciparum patients followed for 14 days after SP treatment, 80 (97.5%) had parasites sensitive to the investigated drug. Parasitemia clearance time after SP was remarkedly short (1.25 ± 0.53 days; mean ± SD). However, we were unable to reduce the parasite reservoir of P. falciparum and P. vivax in these villages, probably because we treated only 337, about one-third, of the parasitemic patients. We conclude that SP is an effective drug for treating individual malaria patients from areas in Pakistan where 4-aminoquinoline-resistant parasites are present, but that more research is needed for assessing its usefulness in reducing community reservoirs of malaria.