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In order to determine the vectors of leishmaniasis in Ecuador, 1,054 manbiting sand flies from the Department of Cañar were dissected and examined for promastigotes. There were 2 man-biting species, Lu. trapidoi and Lu. hartmanni in this endemic area of the disease. The infection rates were 7.7% in the former and 3.9% in the latter species, demonstrating the different rates in various localities and altitudes of the study areas. There was an association between infection rates and the time of day, suggesting some connection with biting activity of sand fly species. In collections using human bait at 7 study areas in 5 Departments, 6 man-biting species were recognized, indicating different dominant species in each area. It was assumed that the dominant species would play an important role as the principal vector of leishmaniasis in each endemic area. As to species determination of the present Leishmania promastigotes, suffice it to say that the parasites are Leishmania sp., presumably L. braziliensis s.l., until the isolates have been typed.