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Adult Schistosoma mansoni were incubated for 1 hour in vitro with various drugs and then returned into the mesenteric veins of permissive animal hosts. Survival of schistosomes was assessed 3–4 weeks later by portal perfusion. Under these conditions, oxamniquine and hycanthone proved effective in killing S. mansoni, whereas UK-3883, lucanthone and lucanthone-4-desmethyl had no lethal activity. The same drugs which were schistosomicidal in vitro also persistently inhibited DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis in S. mansoni, whereas they were only transiently inhibitory against Schistosoma japonicum, against hycanthone-resistant S. mansoni and against immature worms. When drugs were administered in vivo to infected mice and the synthesis of macromolecules was assayed in vitro on worms obtained 1 or 3 days after treatment, not only oxamniquine and hycanthone, but also UK-3883 and lucanthone, proved effective in inhibiting the synthesis of macromolecules in sensitive—but not in resistant—S. mansoni. It is suggested that oxamniquine, like hycanthone, may exert its schistosomicidal activity by inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis in the parasite.