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Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and electron microscopy (EM) were utilized to investigate the presence of rotavirus in feces of 388 children with acute enteritis hospitalized at the Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The survey covered 12 months, beginning in July 1981. There were 162 rotavirus-positive cases (41.8%). During the period of the study rotavirus was detected throughout the year, but there was a striking seasonal variation (78.1% of cases) during January 1982.