Demonstration of Hypnozoites in Sporozoite-Transmitted Plasmodium vivax Infection

W. A. Krotoski Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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W. E. Collins Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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R. S. Bray Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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P. C. C. Garnham Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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F. B. Cogswell Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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R. W. Gwadz Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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R. Killick-Kendrick Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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R. Wolf Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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R. Sinden Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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L. C. Koontz Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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P. S. Stanfill Laboratory Research Branch, National Hansen's Disease Center, Department of Tropical Medicine and Medical Parasitology, Louisiana State University Medical Center, Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Delta Regional Primate Research Center (Tulane University), Carville, Louisiana 70721, England

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Abstract. Hypnozoites of two strains of the human relapsing malaria parasite, Plasmodium vivax, have been detected among maturing 7- and 10-day pre-erythrocytic schizonts in liver biopsies of chimpanzees infected by intravenous inoculation of sporozoites obtained from dissected salivary glands of heavily infected anopheline mosquitoes. As in the simian relapsing species, P. cynomolgi, the hypnozoites of P. vivax at 7 and 10 days are uninucleate forms of approximately 4–5 µm diameter, lying within the cytoplasm of individual hepatocytes. Their presence in this relapsing human species is added support for the hypnozoite theory of malarial relapse.

Author Notes

Member, External Staff, Medical Research Council, England.

Senior Fellow Emeritus, Department of Pure and Applied Biology, Imperial College at Silwood Park.

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