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Sera from 458 residents of a coffee plantation in an area of Guatemala endemic for onchocerciasis were examined for the presence of antibodies to Onchocerca volvulus using a fluorescent antibody (IFA) test with sections of adult worms as the antigen. Antibody response increased with age of the residents and microfilarial density. A total of 70.0% of the residents were serologically positive and 65.1% were positive for microfilariae. Males had higher microfilarial densities and higher IFA responses. Sixty-three individuals were positive for microfilariae and IFA-negative indicating a lack of sensitivity on the part of the test antigen. Seventy-four individuals were negative for microfilariae and IFA-positive, suggesting the possible usefulness of the test in the determination of present or past infection in the absence of microfilariae.