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Development of the microfilaria of Mansonella ozzardi to the infective stage in a species of the Simulium sanguineum group from the Mitú area, Comisaría del Vaupés, Colombia is described. Development was synchronous, and by day 6 third-stage larvae were observed in the head of flies which had fed on two naturally infected volunteers. Simulium biting activity was high from January–March, during the dry season. Only 261 blood-fed Culicoides were collected from an infected volunteer; 40% of 43 dissected on day 0 had ingested microfilariae. However, only one of 129 C. caprilesi specimens dissected after day 2 was positive, containing a second-stage larva thought to be M. ozzardi. It is concluded that Simulium, rather than Culicoides, are the principal vectors of mansonelliasis in the Mitú area.