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The prevalences of intestinal parasites among the residents of three South American Indian villages in the process of acculturation were compared with those found in earlier unpublished surveys in two newly contacted villages. Although one individual in an acculturating village harbored 11 different intestinal parasites, in general the average number of different parasitic species carried per person was somewhat higher in the newly contacted villages. Helminth egg counts, performed on direct smears of each specimen from one newly contacted village, were low. There were no sex-associated differences in prevalences. The overall prevalences, unadjusted for age, were among the highest recorded for Amerindians. No Taenia species were present. Balantidium coli was present in two acculturating villages, concomitant with the beginning of agricultural practices which include raising swine. No case of moderate or severe protein-calorie malnutrition was observed in any of the villages during the surveys. These limited data provide a baseline for future comparisons and, perhaps, a glimpse into the past.