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The prevalence of microfilaremia among Indians in 13 Amazon Indian villages was determined by examining Giemsa-stained peripheral blood smears and preparations from peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures. Mansonella ozzardi was the only species found in the 601 persons tested. Prevalence was highly village-specific, ranging from 0% in four villages to as high as 93% among persons aged 10 years and older in others. Comparisons of the two methods showed that the concentration effect of the peripheral blood lymphocyte culture preparations allowed the detection of a greater number of microfilaria-positive persons, especially women and children with lower levels of parasitemia.