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A population of 24 infants and young children followed prospectively during the first 3 years of life was studied for the occurrence of rotavirus infection by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect virus in stools. Infection with rotavirus was associated with 26 (14.2%) of 183 selected diarrheal episodes. Twenty of the 24 infants and young children had diarrhea associated with rotavirus on at least one occasion and six had two such episodes. Rotavirus infection was documented in over 50% of the dehydrating episodes studied, thus further indicating the importance of rotavirus in this population.