Immunological Properties of Antivenins

I. Bivalent Cerates cerastes and Cerastes vipera Antivenin

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  • Serum Institute, National Research Center, Agouza, Cairo, Egypt

Bivalent Cerastes cerastes and C. vipera antivenin was prepared in horses by using formol-treated venom (toxoid), followed by increasing doses of unmodified venom. The neutralization capacity of purified, concentrated antiserum was three times that of the crude. Cross-immunodiffusion studies revealed patterns of identity or partial identity with viper venoms (C. cerastes, C. vipera, and Echis carinatus from Egypt; E. carinatus, Vipera persica, and V. lebetina from Iran), while only very faint and weak precipitin lines were observed with elapid venoms (Naja haje and N. nigricollis from Egypt; N. naja oxiana from Iran; N. naja from India). Results of in vivo cross-neutralization tests showed some relation to those of the immunodiffusion studies.