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The association of Schistosoma mansoni infection and proteinuria was investigated by measuring quantitative urinary protein in a defined population in an endemic area in northeastern Brazil. Persons with schistosomiasis had higher mean urinary protein than those without. Two of 162 persons with schistosomiasis had clear evidence of renal disease (pathologic proteinuria, abnormal urinary sediment). These results seemed to be related neither to the intensity of S. mansoni infection as measured by fecal egg excretion nor to the presence of hepatic and splenic enlargement in schistosomiasis.