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To provide information on the frequency and distribution of human trypanosomiasis in the Republic of Panamá, we carried out a survey of the rural population in the nine provinces and the San Blas Territory. After direct examination of blood and hemoculture procedures, we examined 12,975 blood samples, corresponding to 10,570 persons, for trypanosomes from January 1965 through December 1969. Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli were more prevalent in the rural areas of Central Panamá, including the provinces of Panamá, Colón, and Coclé. Infections with T. rangeli were also recorded in Darién and Bocas del Toro Provinces. Parasitemia was not detected in blood samples examined from Herrera, Los Santos, Veraguas, and Chiriquí Provinces. The samples from the San Blas Territory were also negative. In Central Panamá, both T. cruzi and T. rangeli occur in the same localities. In 16 communities studied in Panamá Province, the infection rate varied from 0.5% to 8.8%. T. rangeli was six times more prevalent than T. cruzi. The annual variation in the prevalence of infections during the 5 years of this study was determined for the villages of Mendoza. Altos del Jobo, and Cerro Cama. Of 160 persons found positive for trypanosomes, 75% were less than 16 years old. Trypanosomes were more frequently detected in children 6 to 10 years old.