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Viable scolices and cysts of Echinococcus granulosus were inoculated intraperitoneally in rats and inbred mice, under standardized conditions. The antibody response was tested by indirect hemagglutination against the globulin antigen of hydatid fluid. Both the number of hydatid cysts formed after scolex inoculation and the antibody response were lower in rats than in mice. In mice the antibody response was directly proportional to the number of the cysts formed after scolex inoculation. Humoral antihydatid antibodies appear to be synthesized mainly in response to viable hydatid parasites.