Treatment Outcome in Patients with Disseminated Cysticercosis: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

Ravindra Kumar Garg Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India

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Imran Rizvi Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India

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Rajarshi Chakravarty Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India

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Hardeep Singh Malhotra Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India

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Neeraj Kumar Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India

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ABSTRACT.

Disseminated cysticercosis is defined by multiple brain lesions and involvement of other body sites. Cysticidal treatment in disseminated cysticercosis is considered life-threatening. We conducted a systematic review of all published cases and case series to assess the safety and efficacy of cysticidal treatment. We conducted a systematic review in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines (PROSPERO CRD42022331895) to assess the safety and efficacy of cysticidal treatment. Using the search term “disseminated neurocysticercosis OR disseminated cysticercosis,” databases like PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched. Outcomes included death and secondary measures like clinical improvement and lesion reduction. We calculated the predictors of primary outcome (death) using the binary logistic regression analysis. We reviewed 222 published cases from 101 publications. Approximately 87% cases were reported from India. Of 222 cases, 134 (60%) received cysticidal treatment. Follow-up information was available from 180 patients, 11 of them died, and 169 showed clinical improvement. The death rate was 4% (5 out of 114) in patients treated with cysticidal drugs plus corticosteroids, in comparison with 13% (5 out of 38) in patients who were treated with corticosteroids alone. All patients using only praziquantel faced fatality. Death predictors identified were altered sensorium and lack of treatment with albendazole. We noted that the risk of death after cysticidal treatment is not as we expected, and a multicentric randomized controlled trial is needed to resolve this issue.

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Author Notes

Authors’ addresses: Ravindra Kumar Garg, Imran Rizvi, Rajarshi Chakravarty, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, and Neeraj Kumar, Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, India, E-mails: garg50@yahoo.com, imranrizvi09@gmail.com, satyalung@gmail.com, drhsmalhotra@gmail.com, and drneeraj2903@gmail.com.

Address correspondence to Ravindra Kumar Garg, Department of Neurology, King George’s Medical University, Lucknow 226003, India. E-mail: garg50@yahoo.com
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