Systematic Review of Impacts of Educational Interventions to Control Breeding Sites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus Mosquitoes

Carola Soria Cátedra de Introducción a la Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina;
Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina;

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Walter Ricardo Almirón Cátedra de Introducción a la Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina;
Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina;

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Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, Montevideo, Uruguay

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Liliana Beatriz Crocco Cátedra de Introducción a la Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina;
Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas-CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina;

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ABSTRACT.

Community participation is a critical element in the management of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus breeding sites. Many educational interventions have been conducted to encourage prevention and elimination of breeding sites among different community actors, such as government-run programs for vector surveillance aimed at preventing and eliminating breeding sites at the household level within a community. Getting people involved in prevention and elimination of vector breeding sites in their communities requires communication and social mobilization strategies to promote and reinforce those prevention actions that, in turn, should be effective from the entomological standpoint. Articles published in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, were reviewed to assess whether educational interventions targeting Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were effective in reducing entomological indicators or in improving practices to prevent the presence of or eliminate breeding sites. The most widely used indicators were larval indices and the practices associated with reducing/eliminating breeding sites. We found that using a community-based approach adapted to eco-epidemiological and sociocultural scenarios explains the reduction of entomological indicators by educational interventions. Those who design or implement educational interventions should strengthen the evaluation of those interventions using qualitative approaches that provide a more complete picture of the social context and the barriers and facilitators to implementing vector control. Engaging school children in cross-sectorial collaboration involving the health and education spheres promotes the participation of the community in vector surveillance and reduces the risk of arboviral disease transmission.

Author Notes

Financial support: This study was supported by the Proyecto Institucional de Unidades Ejecutoras del Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas and Técnicas de “Evaluación eco-epidemiológica de vectores de arbovirus en ecosistemas urbano-periurbanos a través de un enfoque transdisciplinar para el desarrollo de estrategias de manejo integrado” (PUE-2016 IIBYT-CONICET-UNC).

Disclosure: The opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas and Tecnológicas of the Universidad Nacional de Córdoba.

Authors’ addresses: Carola Soria, Walter Ricardo Almirón, and Liliana Beatriz Crocco, Cátedra de Introducción a la Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Argentina and Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas y Tecnológicas, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas- CONICET, Córdoba, Argentina. E-mails: csoria@unc.edu.ar, wralmiron@unc.edu.ar, and licrocco@gmail.com. Anna M. Stewart-Ibarra, Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research, Montevideo, Uruguay. E-mail: astewart@dir.iai.int.

Address correspondence to Carola Soria, Avda. Vélez Sarsfield 299, X5000JJC, Córdoba, Argentina. E-mail: csoria@unc.edu.ar
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