Case Report: Itraconazole Oral Solution Continuous Therapy for Infantile Tinea Capitis

Ya Bin Zhou Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Ya Bin Zhou in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jin Jing Chao Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Jin Jing Chao in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Lin Ma Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Lin Ma in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Yuan Yuan Xiao Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, China

Search for other papers by Yuan Yuan Xiao in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

Tinea capitis is a common fungal infection caused by dermatophytes in children, but it is rare in infants. Although oral itraconazole has been widely used to treat tinea capitis, its use in infants is limited due to its low prevalence in this age group. A previous study reported the effectiveness of itraconazole continuous therapy in treating infantile tinea capitis caused by Microsporum canis. However, this approach has not been extended to tinea capitis caused by other fungi. In this study, we present four cases of infantile tinea capitis treated with continuous itraconazole oral solution therapy (5 mg/kg/day). Two patients were infected with M. canis, one patient with Nannizzia gypsea, and another with Trichophyton tonsurans. This study assesses the efficacy and safety of itraconazole oral solution continuous therapy, expanding our understanding by demonstrating its effectiveness for infantile tinea capitis caused by T. tonsurans and N. gypsea.

Author Notes

Financial support: This work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2022YFC2504800).

Disclosure: Informed consent was obtained from the patients’ parents for publication of case details.

Authors’ addresses: Ya Bin Zhou, Jin Jing Chao, Lin Ma, and Yuan Yuan Xiao, Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, Beijing, China, E-mails: chouyabin@163.com, chaojinjing3@163.com, bch_maleen@aliyun.com, and xyy81924@126.com.

Address correspondence to Yuan Yuan Xiao, Department of Dermatology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children’s Health, No. 56 Nan Lishi Rd., Xicheng District, Beijing 100045, China. E-mail: xyy81924@126.com
  • 1.

    Mayser P et al., 2020. S1 guidelines: Tinea capitis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 18: 161179.

  • 2.

    Gupta AK , Mays RR , Versteeg SG , Piraccini BM , Shear NH , Piguet V , Tosti A , Friedlander SF , 2018. Tinea capitis in children: A systematic review of management. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 32: 22642274.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Zhan P , Li D , Wang C , Sun J , Geng C , Xiong Z , Seyedmousavi S , Liu W , de Hoog GS , 2015. Epidemiological changes in tinea capitis over the sixty years of economic growth in China. Med Mycol 53: 691698.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Khurana A , Sardana K , Chowdhary A , 2019. Antifungal resistance in dermatophytes: Recent trends and therapeutic implications. Fungal Genet Biol 132: 103255.

  • 5.

    Marwaha RK , Maheshwari A , 1999. Systemic antifungal therapy in pediatric practice. Indian Pediatr 36: 10111021.

  • 6.

    Hennig S , Wainwright CE , Bell SC , Miller H , Friberg LE , Charles BG , 2006. Population pharmacokinetics of itraconazole and its active metabolite hydroxy-itraconazole in paediatric cystic fibrosis and bone marrow transplant patients. Clin Pharmacokinet 45: 10991114.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Kobayashi R , Suzuki D , Yasuda K , Kobayashi K , 2010. Itraconazole for invasive fungal infection with pediatric malignancies. Pediatr Int 52: 707710.

  • 8.

    Nenoff P et al., 2023. S1 guideline onychomycosis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 21: 678692.

  • 9.

    Zhou YB , Xiao YY , Chao JJ , Ma L , 2021. A novel itraconazole pulse therapy schedule in the treatment of tinea capitis in children. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 14: 17991803.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Binder B , Richtig E , Weger W , Ginter-Hanselmayer G , 2009. Tinea capitis in early infancy treated with itraconazole: A pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 23: 11611163.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Fuller LC , Child FJ , Midgley G , Higgins EM , 2003. Diagnosis and management of scalp ringworm. BMJ 326: 539541.

  • 12.

    Zampella JG , Kwatra SG , Blanck J , Cohen B , 2017. Tinea in tots: Cases and literature review of oral antifungal treatment of tinea capitis in children under 2 years of age. J Pediatr 183: 1218.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Egunsola O , Adefurin A , Fakis A , Jacqz-Aigrain E , Choonara I , Sammons H , 2013. Safety of fluconazole in paediatrics: A systematic review. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 69: 12111221.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Grover C , Arora P , Manchanda V , 2012. Comparative evaluation of griseofulvin, terbinafine and fluconazole in the treatment of tinea capitis. Int J Dermatol 51: 455458.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Gilaberte Y , Rezusta A , Gil J , Sáenz-Santamaría MC , Coscojuela C , Navarro M , Zubiri ML , Moles B , Rubio MC , 2004. Tinea capitis in infants in their first year of life. Br J Dermatol 151: 886890.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Larralde M , Gomar B , Boggio P , Abad ME , Pagotto B , 2010. Neonatal kerion Celsi: Report of three cases. Pediatr Dermatol 27: 361363.

  • 17.

    Valari M , Stefanaki C , Karteri G , Zarkadi E , Katsambas A , 2006. Tinea capitis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a 3-month-old infant. Mycoses 49: 439440.

  • 18.

    Fuller LC , Barton RC , Mohd Mustapa MF , Proudfoot LE , Punjabi SP , Higgins EM , 2014. British Association of Dermatologists’ guidelines for the management of tinea capitis 2014. Br J Dermatol 171: 454463.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 493 493 146
Full Text Views 34 34 13
PDF Downloads 58 58 20
 
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save