Assessing the Effects of One-Time Praziquantel Treatment on Urogenital Lesions Detected by Ultrasound in Schistosoma haematobium–Infected Individuals in Chad

Didier Lalaye Julius Global Health Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands;

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Tom P. V. M. de Jong Department of Urology, University Children’s Hospitals UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands;
Department of Urology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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ABSTRACT.

The objective was to determine the impact of a single dose of praziquantel on urogenital lesions caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Ultrasound (US) was performed on three age groups of subjects with a positive test for hematuria, with the first examination performed in November 2017 and a follow-up visit 7 months later. None of the subjects had previously received treatment. The participants were categorized into three distinct age groups: group 1 = 1–15 years, group 2 = 15–30 years, and group 3 = ≥ 30 years. A total of 250 people from these three groups underwent screening: 99 in group 1, 90 in group 2, and 61 in group 3, among whom 131 (52.4%) had at least one detectable lesion of the urogenital tract on US. Follow-up US after 7 months was possible in 60%, 67%, and 77% of the respective groups (with lesions). The anomalies disappeared in 80% of individuals in group 1, 76% of those in group 2, and 65% in group 3. With the exception of calcifications, most visible anomalies had been resolved. The total number of anomalies is low. Severe obstructive uropathy was not detected. We can conclude that single treatment with praziquantel is able to cure visible anomalies, with the exception of calcifications. The low rate of anomalies, compared with levels in the literature, is speculated to be due to undetected death by obstructive uropathy caused by S. haematobium. This requires further investigation.

Author Notes

Disclosure: Before the start of the study, permission was granted by the health authority of Torroc (District sanitaire de Torrock). Individuals were informed in churches and mosques, and oral consent was given by all subjects or one of the parents of each participant under the age of 18 years. Written consent was not possible due to local illiteracy, but the community head was duly informed, and adult subjects and parents were adequately informed on the purpose of the study to obtain their verbal consent. Data were analyzed anonymously.

Authors’ addresses: Didier Lalaye, Julius Global Health Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands, E-mail: lalaye84@gmail.com. Tom P. V. M. de Jong, Department of Urology, University Children’s Hospitals UMC Utrecht, The Netherlands, and Department of Urology, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, E-mail: t.p.v.m.dejong@umcutrecht.nl.

Address correspondence to Didier Lalaye, Julius Global Health Center, University Medical Center Utrecht, Universiteitsweg 100, 3584 CG Utrecht, The Netherlands. E-mail: lalaye84@gmail.com
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