Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniasis Caused by the Same Zymodeme of Leishmania donovani in Kerala, India

Prasanta Saini Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, India;

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Pananchikkaparambil Abdu Fathima Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, India;

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Rema Suresh Aiswarya Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, India;

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Puthenpurackal Madhavan Ajithlal Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, India;

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Koothupalakkal Ravi Rajesh Department of Infectious Disease, Government Medical College, Thrissur, India;

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Surendran Maheswari Simi Department of Dermatology, Sree Gokulam Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, India;

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Narendran Pradeep Kumar Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, India;

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Ashwani Kumar Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry, India

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ABSTRACT.

The tribal population in and around the Western Ghats region of India is affected by both cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) with typical clinical symptoms. In this study, we recorded and analyzed seven CL and three VL cases from this emerging belt. All the cases were found as autochthonous transmission. Multiple genetic markers (minicircle kinetoplast DNA polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism of 3′untranslated region heat shock protein (HSP) 70, a larger segment of HSP 70, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase [PGDH] gene sequences) were used to identify and characterize the parasite. It was found that both clinical manifestations are caused by zymodeme MON-37 of Leishmania donovani. We have investigated the detailed entomological and epidemiological aspects of disease transmission. An abundant population of the proven vector Phlebotomus argentipes was observed in the study villages.

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Author Notes

Financial support: This study was funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi (Grant no. 6/9-7[213]/2019-ECD-II).

Authors’ addresses: Prasanta Saini, Pananchikkaparambil Abdu Fathima, Rema Suresh Aiswarya, Puthenpurackal Madhavan Ajithlal, and Narendran Pradeep Kumar, Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, India, E-mails: prasantasaini09@gmail.com, fathimapa547@gmail.com, draiswaryadhanil@gmail.com, ajithlalnandanam@gmail.com, and kumar.dr.n.pradeep@gmail.com. Koothupalakkal Ravi Rajesh, Department of Infectious Disease, Government Medical College, Thrissur, India, E-mail: ijkrajesh@gmail.com. Surendran Maheswari Simi, Department of Dermatology, Sree Gokulam Medical College Hospital, Thiruvananthapuram, India, E-mail: drsimism@gmail.com. Ashwani Kumar, Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre, Puducherry, India, E-mail: ashwani07@gmail.com.

Address correspondence to Prasanta Saini, Indian Council of Medical Research–Vector Control Research Centre (Field Station), Kottayam, Kerala 686003, India. E-mail: prasantasaini09@gmail.com
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