Evaluation of Vector-Enabled Xenosurveillance in Rural Guatemala

Rebekah J. McMinn Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Andrea Chacon Fundacion para la Salud Integral de los Guatemaltecos, Retalhuleu, Guatemala;

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Claudia Rückert Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada;

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Valeria Scorza Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Michael C. Young Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Delaney Worthington Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Molly M. Lamb Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado;

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Ramon E. Medrano Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala;

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Emma K. Harris Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Kareen Arias Center for Human Development, Retalhuleu, Guatemala;

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Maria Renee Lopez Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala;

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Edwin J. Asturias Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado;
Center for Human Development, Retalhuleu, Guatemala;
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado

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Brian D. Foy Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Mark D. Stenglein Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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Daniel Olson Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado;
Center for Human Development, Retalhuleu, Guatemala;
Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado

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Gregory D. Ebel Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado;

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ABSTRACT.

Surveillance methods that permit rapid detection of circulating pathogens in low-resource settings are desperately needed. In this study, we evaluated a mosquito bloodmeal-based surveillance method (“xenosurveillance”) in rural Guatemala. Twenty households from two villages (Los Encuentros and Chiquirines) in rural southwest Guatemala were enrolled and underwent weekly prospective surveillance from August 2019 to December 2019 (16 weeks). When febrile illness was reported in a household, recently blood-fed mosquitoes were collected from within dwellings and blood samples taken from each member of the household. Mosquitoes were identified to species and blood sources identified by sequencing. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to identify circulating viruses. Culex pipiens (60.9%) and Aedes aegypti (18.6%) were the most abundant mosquitoes collected. Bloodmeal sources were most commonly human (32.6%) and chicken (31.6%), with various other mammal and avian hosts detected. Several mosquito-specific viruses were detected, including Culex orthophasma virus. Human pathogens were not detected. Therefore, xenosurveillance may require more intensive sampling to detect human pathogens in Guatemala and ecologically similar localities in Central America.

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Author Notes

Financial support: This work was supported by a seed grant from the Colorado State University One Health Institute and by Colorado State University’s Office of the Vice President for Research. V. S. was partially supported by Colorado State University’s Office of the Vice President for Research. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the Office of the Vice President for Research. D. O. is supported by NIH/NCATS Colorado CTSI grant no. UL1 TR001082 and NIH/NIAID 1K23AI143967. R. J. M. was supported by NIH project no. 5F31AI154737-02. This project is continued with the support of NIH project no. 5R21AI154011-02.

Authors’ addresses: Rebekah J. McMinn, Valeria Scorza, Michael C. Young, Delaney Worthington, Emma K. Harris, Brian D. Foy, Mark D. Stenglein, and Gregory D. Ebel, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: rebekah.mcminn@colostate.edu, andrea.scorza@colostate.edu, emceeyoung@gmail.com, delaney.worthington20@alumni.colostate.edu, emkate.harris@colostate.edu, brian.foy@colostate.edu, mark.stenglein@colostate.edu, and gregory.ebel@colostate.edu. Andrea Chacon, Fundacion para la Salud Integral de los Guatemaltecos, Retalhuleu, Guatemala, E-mail: chaconjuarez@gmail.com. Claudia Rückert, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Nevada, Reno, NV, E-mail: crueckert@unr.edu. Molly M. Lamb, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, E-mail: molly.lamb@cuanschutz.edu. Ramon E. Medrano and Maria Renee Lopez, Centro de Estudios en Salud, Universidad del Valle de Guatemala, Guatemala City, Guatemala, E-mails: estuardomedranoe@gmail.com and mlopez@ces.uvg.edu.gt. Kareen Arias, Center for Human Development, Retalhuleu, Guatemala, E-mail: kareen.arias@gmail.com. Edwin J. Asturias and Daniel Olson, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, Center for Human Development, Retalhuleu, Guatemala, and Department of Pediatrics, Section of Infectious Diseases, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, E-mails: edwin.asturias@childrenscolorado.org and daniel.olson@childrenscolorado.org.

Address correspondence to Daniel Olson, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 13199 E Montview Blvd, Aurora, CO 80045. E-mail: daniel.olson@childrenscolorado.org or Gregory D. Ebel, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, 1685 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, CO 80523. E-mail: gregory.ebel@colostate.edu
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