Mosquito Repellent Efficacy of Australian Blue Cypress Callitris intratropica Essential Oil and a Topical Formulation under Laboratory and Field Conditions

Melanie Koinari Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Smithfield, Australia;

Search for other papers by Melanie Koinari in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Brogan Amos Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Smithfield, Australia;

Search for other papers by Brogan Amos in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Michael Townsend Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Smithfield, Australia;

Search for other papers by Michael Townsend in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Stephan Karl Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Smithfield, Australia;
Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Papua, New Guinea

Search for other papers by Stephan Karl in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

Mosquito repellents are important for personal protection against nuisance and potentially infectious mosquito bites. Repellent activity of Australian blue cypress essential oil (EO) and a commercially formulated skin lotion containing blue cypress EO (topical formulation) were compared with 20% DEET (N, N-diethyl-3 toluamide) against mosquitoes under laboratory and field conditions in North Queensland, Australia. On a volunteer’s forearm, 1 mL of candidate material was applied to approximately 600 cm2 of exposed skin. When blue cypress EO was applied at various concentrations (0.5%–10.5%), it did not fully prevent mosquito landing or biting. However, a dose–dependent increase, approaching 80% protection, was observed at high EO concentrations. On the basis of these results, three concentrations (5%, 10%, and 20%) of blue cypress EO were selected for complete protection time (CPT) experiments. Topical formulation (undiluted) was also included in CPT experiments. Although some protection was afforded, mosquito landing/probing were still recorded immediately after application for both blue cypress EO and its topical formulation. Specifically, protection declined for blue cypress EO from 80% to 70% (laboratory) and from 93% to 50% (field) within 1 hour. For topical formulation, protection declined from 85% to 75% in the laboratory and from 63% to 50% in the field. In comparison, DEET maintained a 100% protection throughout the testing period of up to 1 h, and there was no landing/probing observed in volunteers who had applied DEET. To conclude, both blue cypress products provided some protection against mosquito bites, which decreased soon after application.

    • Supplemental Materials (PDF 163.70 KB)
    • Supplemental Materials (XLSX 11.053 KB)

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Melanie Koinari, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, Bldg. E4, James Cook University, 1/14-88 McGregor Rd., Smithfield, Queensland 4878, Australia. E-mail: melanie.koinari@jcu.edu.au

Financial support: This work received funding from Innovation Connections Researcher Placement grant (ICG001564) and Australian Blue Cypress Pty Ltd.

Data availability: The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

Authors’ addresses: Melanie Koinari, Brogan Amos, and Michael Townsend, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Smithfield, Australia, E-mails: melanie.koinari@jcu.edu.au, brogan.amos@jcu.edu.au, and michael.townsend@jcu.edu.au. Stephan Karl, Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine, James Cook University, Smithfield, Australia, and Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Papua, New Guinea, E-mail: stephan.karl@jcu.edu.au.

  • 1.

    Agarwal A, Parida M, Dash PK, 2017. Impact of transmission cycles and vector competence on global expansion and emergence of arboviruses. Rev Med Virol; Epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1002/rmv.1941.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    World Health Organization , 2013. Lymphatic Filariasis: A Handbook of Practical Entomology for National Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Programmes. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    World Health Organization , 2021. World Malaria Report 2020. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

  • 4.

    Musso D, Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Lewi JE, Cao-Lormeau VM, Gubler DJ, 2018. Unexpected outbreaks of arbovirus infections: lessons learned from the Pacific and tropical America. Lancet Infect Dis 18: e355e361.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Russell RC, Dwyer DE, 2000. Arboviruses associated with human disease in Australia. Microbes Infect 2: 16931704.

  • 6.

    Bidlingmayer WL, 1994. How mosquitos see traps—role of visual responses. Am Mosq Control Assoc. 10: 272279.

  • 7.

    Ditzen M, Pellegrino M, Vosshall LD, 2008. Insect odorant receptors are molecular targets of the insect repellent DEET. Science 319: 18381842.

  • 8.

    Mboera LEG, Takken W, Sambu EZ, 2000. The response of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) to traps baited with carbon dioxide, 1-octen-3-ol, acetone, butyric acid and human foot odour in Tanzania. Bull Entomol Res 90: 155159.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    McMeniman CJ, Corfas RA, Matthews BJ, Ritchie SA, Vosshall LB, 2014. Multimodal integration of carbon dioxide and other sensory cues drives mosquito attraction to humans. Cell 156: 10601071.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    van Breugel F, Riffell J, Fairhall A, Dickinson MH, 2015. Mosquitoes use vision to associate odor plumes with thermal targets. Curr Biol 25: 21232129.

  • 11.

    Debboun M, Strickman D, 2013. Insect repellents and associated personal protection for a reduction in human disease. Med Vet Entomol 27: 19.

  • 12.

    Gershenzon J, Dudareva N, 2007. The function of terpene natural products in the natural world. Nat Chem Biol 3: 408414.

  • 13.

    Lee SE, Lee BH, Choi WS, Park BS, Kim JG, Campbell BC, 2001. Fumigant toxicity of volatile natural products from Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L). Pest Manag Sci 57: 548553.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Maia MF, Moore SJ, 2011. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development and testing. Malar J 10 (Suppl 1 ):S11.

  • 15.

    Peterson C, Coats J, 2001. Insect repellents—past, present and future. Pestic Outlook 12: 154158.

  • 16.

    Katz TM, Miller JH, Hebert AA, 2008. Insect repellents: historical perspectives and new developments. J Am Acad Dermatol 58: 865871.

  • 17.

    U.S. National Pesticide Information Center , 2018. Skin-Applied Repellent Ingredients. Available at: http://npic.orst.edu/factsheets/repellents.html. Accessed September 12, 2022.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Khater HF, Selim AM, Abouella GA, Abouella NA, Murugan K, Vaz NP, Govindarajan M, 2019. Commercial mosquito repellents and their safety concerns. Malaria doi: 10.5772/intechopen.87436.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Lo W, Mok L, Ming S, 2018. Which insect repellents should we choose? Implications from results of local market survey and review of current guidelines. Hong Kong J Emerg Med 25: 272280.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Pichersky E, Gershenzon J, 2002. The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5: 237243.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Amer A, Mehlhorn H, 2006. Repellency effect of forty-one essential oils against Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 99: 478490.

  • 22.

    Lupi E, Hatz C, Schlagenhauf P, 2013. The efficacy of repellents against Aedes, Anopheles, Culex and Ixodes spp.—a literature review. Travel Med Infect Dis 11: 374411.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Nerio LS, Olivero-Verbel J, Stashenko E, 2010. Repellent activity of essential oils: a review. Bioresour Technol 101: 372378.

  • 24.

    Trongtokit Y, Rongsriyam Y, Komalamisra N, Apiwathnasorn C, 2005. Comparative repellency of 38 essential oils against mosquito bites. Phytother Res 19: 303309.

  • 25.

    Greive KA, Staton JA, Miller PF, Peters BA, Oppenheim VMJ, 2010. Development of Melaleuca oils as effective natural-based personal insect repellents. Aust J Entomol 49: 4048.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Maguranyi SK, Webb CE, Mansfield S, Russell RC, 2009. Are commercially available essential oils from Australian native plants repellent to mosquitoes? J Am Mosq Control Assoc 25: 292300.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Thomas J, Webb CE, Narkowicz C, Jacobson GA, Peterson GM, Davies NW, Russell RC, 2009. Evaluation of repellent properties of volatile extracts from the Australian native plant Kunzea ambigua against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culcidae). J Med Entomol 46: 13871391.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Webb CE, Russell RC, 2007. Is the extract from the plant catmint (Nepeta cataria) repellent to mosquitoes in Australia? J Am Mosq Control Assoc 23: 351354.

  • 29.

    McGilvray B, 1998. The birth of blue cypress oil. Int J Aromather. 9: 1214.

  • 30.

    Oprava A, Leach D, Beattie K, Connellan P, Forster P, Leach G, Buchbauer G, Shepherd K, Deseo M, 2010. Chemical composition and biological activity of the essential oils from native Australian Callitris species. Planta Med 76: SL_35.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Wanner JKR, Schmidt E, Jirovetz L, Bauhbauer G, Gochev V, Givora T, Stoyanova A, Geissler F, 2010. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of blue cypress essential oil. 41st International Symposium on Essential Oils (ISEO 2010). September 2010, Wrocław, Poland.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Wilkinson JM, Cavanagh HMA, 2005. Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Australian native plants. Phytother Res 19: 643646.

  • 33.

    World Health Organization , 2009. Guidelines for Efficacy Testing of Mosquito Repellents for Human Skin. Geneva, Switzerland, WHO. Available at: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/70072. Accessed January 12, 2021.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Wanner J, Jirovetz L, Schmidt E, 2015. Callitris intratropica R.T. Baker & H.G. Smith as a novel rich source of deoxypodophyllotoxin. Curr Bioact Compd 11: 7377.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Shaalan EAS, Canyon DV, Younes MWF, Abdel-Wahab H, Mansour AH, 2005. Synergistic efficacy of botanical blends with and without synthetic insecticides against Aedes aegypti and Culex annulirostris mosquitoes. J Vector Ecol 30: 284288.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Zhu JW, Zeng XP, O’Neil M, Schultz G, Tucker B, Coats J, Bartholomay L, Xue RD, 2008. Mosquito larvicidal activity of botanical-based mosquito repellents. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 24: 161168.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Sathantriphop S, Achee NL, Sanguanpong U, Chareonviriyaphap T, 2015. The effects of plant essential oils on escape response and mortality rate of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles minimus. J Vector Ecol 40: 318326.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Kongkaew C, Sakunrag I, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tawatsin A, 2011. Effectiveness of citronella preparations in preventing mosquito bites: systematic review of controlled laboratory experimental studies. Trop Med Int Health 16: 802810.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Yang P, Ma Y, 2005. Repellent effect of plant essential oils against Aedes albopictus. J Vector Ecol 30: 231234.

  • 40.

    Barasa SS, Ndiege IO, Lwande W, Hassanali A, 2002. Repellent activities of stereoisomers of p-menthane-3,8-diols against Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 39: 736741.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Bedini S, Flamini G, Ascrizzi R, Venturi F, Ferroni G, Bader A, Girardi J, Conti B, 2018. Essential oils sensory quality and their bioactivity against the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Sci Rep 8: 17857.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Odalo JO, Omolo MO, Malebo H, Angira J, Njeru PM, Ndiege IO, Hassanali A, 2005. Repellency of essential oils of some plants from the Kenyan coast against Anopheles gambiae. Acta Trop 95: 210218.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 934 934 34
Full Text Views 168 168 8
PDF Downloads 49 49 5
 
Membership Banner
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save