Resurgence of Malaria Transmission and Incidence after Withdrawal of Indoor Residual Spraying in the District of Koulikoro, Mali

Moussa Keïta West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Moussa Keïta in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Ibrahim Sissoko West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Ibrahim Sissoko in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Nafomon Sogoba West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Nafomon Sogoba in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Moussa Konaté West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Moussa Konaté in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Sory Ibrahim Diawara West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Sory Ibrahim Diawara in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Fousseyni Kané West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Fousseyni Kané in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Salif Thiam West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Salif Thiam in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mahamoudou Touré West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Mahamoudou Touré in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Drissa Konaté West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Drissa Konaté in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Mahamadou Diakité West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Mahamadou Diakité in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
John C. Beier Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida

Search for other papers by John C. Beier in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Seydou Doumbia West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali;

Search for other papers by Seydou Doumbia in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

ABSTRACT.

In Mali, malaria vector control relies mostly on long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying (IRS). From 2008 to 2016, an IRS program was implemented in the district of Koulikoro. After a significant reduction in malaria indicators, IRS was stopped in 2016. This study evaluated the effect of IRS withdrawal on entomological parameters of malaria transmission and incidence in children aged 6 months to 10 years in the district of Koulikoro. Entomological parameters of malaria transmission during the last year of IRS implementation in 2016 were compared with those obtained 2 years after IRS withdrawal in 2018 in two villages of Koulikoro. Mosquito vectors were collected by mouth aspiration and pyrethrum spray catches in the villages to monitor these transmission parameters. A sharp increase (10.8 times higher) in vector abundance after IRS withdrawal was observed. The infection rate of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to Plasmodium falciparum increased from zero during IRS implementation to 14.8% after IRS withdrawal. The average entomological inoculation rate, which was undetectable before, was 1.22 infected bites per person per month 2 years after IRS was withdrawn, and the cumulative malaria incidence rate observed after IRS was 4.12 times (15.2% versus 3.7%) higher than that observed in 2016 in the villages before IRS withdrawal. This study showed a resurgence of malaria transmission and incidence in the Koulikoro health district after IRS was withdrawn. Thus, to manage the potential consequences of malaria transmission resurgence, alternative approaches are needed when stopping successful malaria control interventions.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Moussa Keïta, West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Point G-Bamako, Mali. BP: 1805. E-mail: moussa@icermali.org

Financial support: This study was supported by the NIH Cooperative Agreements U19AI089696 and U19AI129387 for the West African Center of Excellence for Malaria Research, and D43TW008652 for the research training program on control of malaria and neglected tropical diseases in Mali. The study also received support from Tropical Disease Research/WHO under grant number B20388.

The study protocol and informed consent process were reviewed and approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako in Mali (IRB approval number: 2011/77/FMPOS). In each village, community consent was obtained before any study activities were conducted. Individual written informed consent was obtained from participants or their parents/guardians for mosquito collection (for both room owners and data collectors) before starting the study.

Authors’ addresses: Moussa Keïta, Ibrahim Sissoko, Nafomon Sogoba, Moussa Konaté, Sory Ibrahim Diawara, Fousseyni Kané, Salif Thiam, Mahamoudou Touré, Drissa Konaté, Mahamadou Diakité, and Seydou Doumbia, West African International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research/Malaria Research and Training Center/International Center for Excellence in Research/University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako, Bamako, Mali, E-mails: moussa@icermali.org, ibrahim@icermali.org, nafomon@icermali.org, komoussa2611@gmail.com, sdiawara@icermali.org, fouskane@icermali.org, salifthiam@icermali.org, mah.toure@gmail.com, dkonate@icermali.org, mdiakite@icermali.org, and sdoumbi@icermali.org. John C. Beier, Department of Public Health Sciences, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, E-mail: jbeier@med.miami.edu.

  • 1.

    Programme National de Lutte contre le Paludisme, Institut National de la Statistique (INSTAT), INFO-STAT, Institut National de la Recherche en Santé Publique (INRSP) et ICF International , 2016. Enquête sur les Indicateurs du Paludisme au Mali (EIPM) 2015. Rockville, MD: INSTAT, INFO-STAT et ICF International.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Okumu F, Gyapong M, Casamitjana N, Castro MC, Itoe MA, Okonofua F, Tanner M, 2022. What Africa can do to accelerate and sustain progress against malaria. PLoS Global Public Health 2: e0000262.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Bhatt S et al., 2015. The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015. Nature 526: 207211.

  • 4.

    Aikpon RY, Padonou G, Dagnon F, Osse R, Ogouyemi Hounto A, Tokponon F, Aikpon G, Lyikirenga L, Akogbeto M, 2020. Upsurge of malaria transmission after indoor residual spraying withdrawal in Atacora region in Benin, West Africa. Malar J 19: 3.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Keita M, Sogoba N, Traore B, Kane F, Coulibaly B, Traore SF, Doumbia S, 2021. Performance of pirimiphos-methyl based indoor residual spraying on entomological parameters of malaria transmission in the pyrethroid resistance region of Koulikoro, Mali. Acta Trop 216: 105820.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kane F, Keita M, Traore B, Diawara SI, Bane S, Diarra S, Sogoba N, Doumbia S, 2020. Performance of IRS on malaria prevalence and incidence using pirimiphos-methyl in the context of pyrethroid resistance in Koulikoro region, Mali. Malar J 19: 286.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Wagman J et al., 2020. Rapid reduction of malaria transmission following the introduction of indoor residual spraying in previously unsprayed districts: an observational analysis of Mopti Region, Mali, in 2017. Malar J 19: 340.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    PMI , 2016. Africa IRS (AIRS) Project Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS 2) Task Order Six. 2016 Mali End of Spray Report. Bethesda, MD: Abt Associates.

  • 9.

    Gillies MT, Coetzee MA, 1987. Supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara (Afro-Tropical region). Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Institute for Medical Research.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Gillies MT, de Meillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa, South of the Sahara. Johannesburg, South Africa: The South African Institute for Medical Research.

  • 11.

    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA, Koros J, Diggs D, Gargan TP 2nd, Koech DK, 1988. Bloodmeal identification by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), tested on Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya. J Med Entomol 25: 916.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Beier JC, Perkins PV, Wirtz RA, Whitmire RE, Mugambi M, Hockmeyer WT, 1987. Field evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite detection in anopheline mosquitoes from Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 459468.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Fanello C, Santolamazza F, della Torre A, 2002. Simultaneous identification of species and molecular forms of the Anopheles gambiae complex by PCR-RFLP. Med Vet Entomol 16: 461464.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Degefa T, Yewhalaw D, Zhou G, Lee MC, Atieli H, Githeko AK, Yan G, 2017. Indoor and outdoor malaria vector surveillance in western Kenya: implications for better understanding of residual transmission. Malar J 16: 443.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Keita M et al., 2021. Indoor and outdoor malaria transmission in two ecological settings in rural Mali: implications for vector control. Malar J 20: 127.

  • 16.

    Ba O, Ouldabdallahi M, Koita M, Sy O, Dahdi SA, 2018. Epidemiology of malaria and elimination prospects in Maghreb Countries. Tunis Med 96: 590598.

  • 17.

    Piperak E-T, Manguin S & Dev V Towards Malaria Elimination: A Leap Forward. London, United Kingdom: IntechOpen, 315–335.

  • 18.

    U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative , 2016. Malaria Operational Plan FY 2017. Bethesda, MD: AIRS Project, Abt Associates Inc. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/fy-2017-mali-malaria-operational-plan.pdf. Accessed December 1, 2023.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    International Organization for Migration , 2015. Renewed Violence Displaces More People in Northern Mali. Available at: https://www.iom.int/news/renewed-violence-displaces-more-people-northern-mali. Accessed December 7, 2023.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Aka KG, 2021. Influence des piqûres de moustiques sur les réponses anticorps spécifiques aux antigènes de Plasmodium falciparum. Unité de recherche MIVEGEC Maladies Infectieuses et vecteurs Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle. Montpelier, France: Université de Montpellier, 151.

    • PubMed
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Osse RA, Aïkpon R, Gbédjissi GL, Gnanguenon V, Sèzonlin M, Govoétchan R, Sovi A, Oussou O, Oké-Agbo F, Akogbéto M, 2013. A shift from indoor residual spraying (IRS) with bendiocarb to long-lasting insecticidal (mosquito) nets (LLINs) associated with changes in malaria transmission indicators in pyrethroid resistance areas in Benin. Parasit Vectors 6: 73.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Cisse MB et al., 2015. Characterizing the insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali. Malar J 14: 327.

  • 23.

    Keita M, Kané F, Thiero O, Traoré B, Zeukeng F, Sodio AB, Traoré SF, Djouaka R, Doumbia S, Sogoba N, 2020. Acetylcholinesterase (ace-1(R)) target site mutation G119S and resistance to carbamates in Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) populations from Mali. Parasit Vectors 13: 283.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Keita M, Sogoba N, Kané F, Traoré B, Zeukeng F, Coulibaly B, Sodio AB, Traoré SF, Djouaka R, Doumbia S, 2021. Multiple resistance mechanisms to pyrethroids insecticides in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato population from Mali, West. Afr J Infect Dis 223: S81S90.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Masaninga F et al., 2013. Review of the malaria epidemiology and trends in Zambia. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 3: 8994.

  • 26.

    Nuwa A et al., 2022. District-led malaria surveillance and response as an effective way to manage malaria upsurges following the withdrawal of indoor residual spraying: a case study from Nwoya District, northern Uganda. Malar J 21: 55.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Oxborough RM, 2016. Trends in US President’s Malaria Initiative-funded indoor residual spray coverage and insecticide choice in sub-Saharan Africa (2008–2015): urgent need for affordable, long-lasting insecticides. Malar J 15: 146.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Smith Gueye C, Newby G, Tulloch J, Slutsker L, Tanner M, Gosling RD, 2016. The central role of national programme management for the achievement of malaria elimination: a cross case-study analysis of nine malaria programmes. Malar J 15: 488.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1273 1273 25
Full Text Views 200 200 11
PDF Downloads 80 80 5
 
Membership Banner
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save