Nakanishi A , Harada K , Ota S , Miyasaka E , 2020. Japanese spotted fever. QJM 113: 683.
Noguchi M , Oshita S , Yamazoe N , Miyazaki M , Takemura YC , 2018. Important clinical features of Japanese spotted fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 99: 466–469.
Matsuura H , Yamauchi K , Kagawa K , Zheng F , 2018. Japanese spotted fever. QJM 111: 741–742.
Miyashima Y , Iwamuro M , Shibata M , Miyabe Y , Kawai Y , Kaihara M , Mitogawa T , Harada M , 2018. Prediction of disseminated intravascular coagulation by liver function tests in patients with Japanese spotted fever. Intern Med 57: 197–202.
Nakata R , Motomura M , Tokuda M , Nakajima H , Masuda T , Fukuda T , Tsujino A , Yoshimura T , Kawakami A , 2012. A case of Japanese spotted fever complicated with central nervous system involvement and multiple organ failure. Intern Med 51: 783–786.
Sakabe S , Tanaka H , Nakanishi Y , Toyoshima H , 2022. The clinical course of 239 cases of Japanese spotted fever in Ise Red Cross Hospital, 2006–2019. J Infect Chemother 28: 211–216.
Mahara F et al., 1985. The first report of the rickettsial infections of spotted fever group in Japan: three clinical cases [in Japanese]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi 59: 1165–1171.
Hashimoto S , Kawado M , Murakami Y , Izumida M , Ohta A , Tada Y , Shigematsu M , Yasui Y , Taniguchi K , Nagai M , 2007. Epidemics of vector-borne diseases observed in infectious disease surveillance in Japan, 2000–2005. J Epidemiol 17 (Suppl): S48–S55.
Kinoshita H , Arima Y , Shigematsu M , Sunagawa T , Saijo M , Oishi K , Ando S , 2021. Descriptive epidemiology of rickettsial infections in Japan: scrub typhus and Japanese spotted fever, 2007–2016. Int J Infect Dis 105: 560–566.
Yamaji K , Aonuma H , Kanuka H , 2018. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in Japan: past patterns and implications for the future. J Infect Chemother 24: 499–504.
National Institute of Infectious Diseases , 2022. Infectious Diseases Weekly Report. Available at: https://www.niid.go.jp/niid/ja/allarticles/surveillance/2270-idwr/nenpou/10904-idwr-nenpo2020.html. Accessed July 9, 2022.
Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare , 2022. Vital Statistics. Available at: https://www.e-stat.go.jp/. Accessed July 9, 2022.
Sando E , Suzuki M , Katoh S , Fujita H , Taira M , Yaegashi M , Ariyoshi K , 2018. Distinguishing Japanese spotted fever and scrub typhus, Central Japan, 2004–2015. Emerg Infect Dis 24: 1633–1641.
Yoshikura H , 2017. Geographical distribution of Japanese spotted fever and tsutsugamushi disease in Japan: possible effect of environmental temperature. Jpn J Infect Dis 70: 349–351.
Hatano Y , Kashima S , Kaihara M , Takase K , Hatakeyama S , Reingold AL , Matsumoto M , 2021. Predictive variables for hemodialysis and death in Japanese spotted fever, and the association between distance from rivers and incidence. Ticks Tick Borne Dis 12: 101544.
Matsuura H , Yokota K , 2018. Case report: family cluster of Japanese spotted fever. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98: 835–837.
Arai R et al., 2021. Spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) detection in ticks following reported human case of Japanese spotted fever in Niigata Prefecture, Japan. Sci Rep 11: 2595.
Parola P , Socolovschi C , Jeanjean L , Bitam I , Fournier PE , Sotto A , Labauge P , Raoult D , 2008. Warmer weather linked to tick attack and emergence of severe rickettsioses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e338.
Bouchard C , Dibernardo A , Koffi J , Wood H , Leighton PA , Lindsay LR , 2019. Increased risk of tick-borne diseases with climate and environmental changes. Can Commun Dis Rep 45: 83–89.
Li T , Yang Z , Dong Z , Wang M , 2014. Meteorological factors and risk of scrub typhus in Guangzhou, southern China, 2006–2012. BMC Infect Dis 14: 139.
Tsai PJ , Yeh HC , 2013. Scrub typhus islands in the Taiwan area and the association between scrub typhus disease and forest land use and farmer population density: geographically weighted regression. BMC Infect Dis 13: 191.
Oliveira SV , Romero-Alvarez D , Martins TF , Santos JPD , Labruna MB , Gazeta GS , Escobar LE , Gurgel-Goncalves R , 2017. Amblyomma ticks and future climate: range contraction due to climate warming. Acta Trop 176: 340–348.
Li Z et al., 2020. Epidemiologic changes of scrub typhus in China, 1952–2016. Emerg Infect Dis 26: 1091–1101.
Espejo E , Andres M , Garcia MC , Fajardo A , Mauri M , Perez J , Bella F , 2019. Mediterranean spotted fever in the elderly: a prospective cohort study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 38: 1333–1337.
Roch N , Epaulard O , Pelloux I , Pavese P , Brion JP , Raoult D , Maurin M , 2008. African tick bite fever in elderly patients: 8 cases in French tourists returning from South Africa. Clin Infect Dis 47: e28–e35.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||154||154||24|
The worldwide spread of tick-borne diseases (TBDs) has become a public health concern. Therefore, this study aimed to clarify trends in the incidence of Japanese spotted fever (JSF), one of Japan’s most prevalent TBDs. Weekly infectious disease reports were used to calculate the annual incidence rates (AIRs) of JSF. Data were stratified by age and sex, and joinpoint regression analysis was performed to estimate the annual percentage change (APC). AIR and APC were geographically compared among the 47 prefectures. A total of 3,453 JSF cases were observed from 2001 to 2020. The AIR per 100,000 population was 0.03 in 2001, which increased approximately 10-fold to 0.33 in 2020. The average APC (AAPC) during the study period was 12.3% (95% CI: 10.7–13.9). By age group, the incidence of JSF increased more rapidly among the older population: 11.5% (95% CI: 10.1–12.9) in those aged ≥ 65 years and 8.9% (95% CI: 6.4–11.5) in those aged < 50 years. Although the AIR over the past two decades was higher in climatically warm regions located in southwestern Japan and on the Pacific coast, increases in the AAPC were notable in colder regions located in eastern Japan. The incidence of JSF continues to increase in Japan, especially among older populations and in eastern prefectures, where the disease has not been previously diagnosed.
Authors’ addresses: Yuki Otsuka, Hideharu Hagiya, Shinnosuke Fukushima, and Fumio Otsuka, Department of General Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Ko Harada, Department of General Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, Japan, and Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Mount Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Toshihiro Koyama, Department of Pharmaceutical Biomedicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, Okayama, Japan, E-mail: email@example.com.