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A 29-year-old Japanese man presenting with fever, joint pain, and diarrhea was admitted to the intensive care unit for cardiogenic and distributive shock. We suspected leptospirosis based on conjunctival hyperemia, skin rash, elevated bilirubin, and renal involvement; a travel history to Laos was also suggestive. We confirmed the diagnosis with blood and urine polymerase chain reaction and microscopic agglutination tests using paired serum samples. His hemodynamics were unstable, and his echocardiogram showed diffuse and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction on day 2. He initially required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-A ECMO) support but responded and recovered on antimicrobial therapy. His cardiac function and hemodynamics improved on day 5. Severe leptospirosis may cause jaundice, renal failure, pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and central nervous system involvement; however, few studies have reported severe cardiac manifestations. Herein, we report the first case of septic cardiomyopathy secondary to leptospirosis that was successfully managed with V-A ECMO. Leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when a patient returning from an endemic area presents with cardiogenic shock. Furthermore, intensive care management with prompt initiation of V-A ECMO should be considered to reverse septic cardiomyopathy.
Authors’ addresses: Takao Goto and Yasuhiro Norisue, Department of Critical Care Medicine, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu, Japan, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Rentaro Oda, Department of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo Bay Urayasu Ichikawa Medical Center, Urayasu, Japan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Nobuo Koizumi, Department of Bacteriology I, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, E-mail: email@example.com.