The Global Fund , 2021. The Global Fund Results Report 2021.
Buissonniere M , 2022. Opinion: Why the Global Fund Must Take on Pandemic Preparedness. Available at: https://www.devex.com/news/sponsored/opinion-why-the-global-fund-must-take-on-pandemic-preparedness-102385. Accessed January 6, 2022.
One Campaign , 2022. “We Have to Fight for What Counts”: Why We Need to Tackle HIV, TB, and Malaria. Available at: https://www.one.org/international/blog/peter-sands-global-fund-aids-malaria-tb-interview/. Accessed April 27, 2022.
Roth GA et al., 2020. Global burden of cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, 1990–2019: update from the GBD 2019 study. J Am Coll Cardiol 76: 2982–3021.
Bukhman G , Ziegler J , Parry E , 2008. Endomyocardial fibrosis: still a mystery after 60 years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e97.
Schofield CJ , Jannin J , Salvatella R , 2006. The future of Chagas disease control. Trends Parasitol 22: 583–588.
Remme JHF , Jamison DT , Breman JG , Measham AR , Alleyne G , Claeson M , Evans DB , Jha P , Mills A & Musgrove P Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition. Washington, DC: World Bank. PMID:21250324.
Macleod CK , Bright P , Steer AC , Kim J , Mabey D , Parks T , 2019. Neglecting the neglected: the objective evidence of underfunding in rheumatic heart disease. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 113: 287–290.
Watkins DA et al., 2017. Global, regional, and national burden of rheumatic heart disease, 1990–2015. N Engl J Med 377: 713–722.
Wang H et al., 2016. Estimates of global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and mortality of HIV, 1980–2015: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015. Lancet HIV 3: e361–e387.
Echeverría LE et al., 2020. WHF IASC roadmap on Chagas disease. Glob Heart 15: 26.
Grimaldi A et al., 2016. Tropical endomyocardial fibrosis: natural history, challenges, and perspectives. Circulation 133: 2503–2515.
Einstein AJ et al., 2021. International impact of COVID-19 on the diagnosis of heart disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 77: 173–185.
Chang AY , Cullen MR , Harrington RA , Barry M , 2020. The impact of novel coronavirus COVID-19 on noncommunicable disease patients and health systems: a review. J Intern Med. 289: 450–462.
Garcia S et al., 2020. Reduction in ST-segment elevation cardiac catheterization laboratory activations in the United States during COVID-19 pandemic. J Am Coll Cardiol 75: 2871–2872.
Yong CM et al., 2021. Cardiovascular procedural deferral and outcomes over COVID-19 pandemic phases: a multi-center study. Am Heart J 241: 14–25.
Worldometer COVID Live—Coronavirus Statistics. Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus. Accessed June 21, 2022.
Ritchie H , Mathieu E , Rodés-Guirao L , Appel C , Giattino C , Ortiz-Ospina E , Hasell J , Macdonald B , Beltekian D , Roser M , 2020. Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Our World in Data. Available at: https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus. Accessed June 20, 2022.
The Economist , 2021. The Omicron variant and travel bans are hurting southern Africa. The Economist. Available at: https://www.economist.com/middle-east-and-africa/travel-bans-and-the-omicron-variant-are-hurting-southern-africa/21806542?utm_medium=cpc.adword.pd&utm_source=google&ppccampaignID=17210591673&ppcadID=&utm_campaign=a.22brand_pmax&utm_content=conversion.direct-response.anonymous&gclid=Cj0KCQiAorKfBhC0ARIsAHDzsluUMBLDYee0Y6KL49LKNODoWykHN80pa-_CbafHIKc_jW0mZFBa7tkaApGTEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.ds. Accessed June 21, 2022.
Paratz E , Maurays J , Flavio R , Appelbe A , Bayley N , 2022. Doctors with borders: the impact of international border closures on Timorese people who need cardiac procedures. Med J Aust 216: 583–584.
Beaton A , Zühlke L , Mwangi J , Taubert KA , 2020. Rheumatic heart disease and COVID-19. Eur Heart J 41: 4085–4086.
Molina I et al., 2014. Randomized trial of posaconazole and benznidazole for chronic Chagas’ disease. N Engl J Med 370: 1899–1908.
Jackson Y , Alirol E , Getaz L , Wolff H , Combescure C , Chappuis F , 2010. Tolerance and safety of nifurtimox in patients with chronic Chagas disease. Clin Infect Dis 51: e69–e75.
Watkins DA , Beaton AZ , Carapetis JR , Karthikeyan G , Mayosi BM , Wyber R , Yacoub MH , Zühlke LJ , 2018. Rheumatic heart disease worldwide. J Am Coll Cardiol 72: 1397–1416.
Nadarajah R et al., 2022. The collateral damage of COVID-19 to cardiovascular services: a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 44: 3164–3178.
Chang AY , Nabbaale J , Nalubwama H , Okello E , Ssinabulya I , Longenecker CT , Webel AR , 2018. Motivations of women in Uganda living with rheumatic heart disease: a mixed methods study of experiences in stigma, childbearing, anticoagulation, and contraception. PLoS One 13: e0194030.
Vogel B et al., 2021. The Lancet Women and Cardiovascular Disease Commission: reducing the global burden by 2030. Lancet 397: 2385–2438.
Vorkoper S , Kupfer LE , Anand N , Patel P , Beecroft B , Tierney WM , Ferris R , El-Sadr WM , HIV/NCD Project , 2018. Building on the HIV chronic care platform to address noncommunicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: a research agenda. AIDS 32 (Suppl 1): S107–S113.
National Institutes of Health, Fogarty International Center , 2019. Heart, Lung, and Blood Co-morbiditieS Implementation Models in People Living with HIV (HLB SIMPLe) (UG3/UH3). Available at: https://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/rfa-hl-20-025.html. Accessed October 8, 2019.
Chang AY , Barry M , Bendavid E , Watkins D , Beaton AZ , Lwabi P , Ssinabulya I , Longenecker CT , Okello E , 2022. Mortality along the rheumatic heart disease cascade of care in Uganda. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 15: e008445.
Mallory KL et al., 2021. Messenger RNA expressing PfCSP induces functional, protective immune responses against malaria in mice. NPJ Vaccines 6: 84.
The National Institutes of Health , 2022. NIH Launches Clinical Trial of Three mRNA HIV Vaccines. Available at: https://www.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/nih-launches-clinical-trial-three-mrna-hiv-vaccines. Accessed March 14, 2022.
Savage N , 2021. An mRNA vaccine industry in the making. Nature 598: S30–S31.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||68||68||59|
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly influenced the effort to achieve global health equity. This has been particularly the case for HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria control initiatives in low- and middle-income countries, with significant outcome setbacks seen for the first time in decades. Lost in the calls for compensatory funding increases for such programs, however, is the plight of endemic tropical heart diseases, a group of disorders that includes rheumatic heart disease, Chagas disease, and endomyocardial fibrosis. Such endemic illnesses affect millions of people around the globe and remain a source of substantial mortality, morbidity, and health disparity. Unfortunately, these conditions were already neglected before the pandemic, and thus those living with them have disproportionately suffered during the time of COVID-19. In this perspective, we briefly define endemic tropical heart diseases, summarizing their prepandemic epidemiology, funding, and control statuses. We then describe the ways in which people living with these disorders, along with the healthcare providers and researchers working to improve their outcomes, have been harmed by the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We conclude by proposing the path forward, including approaches we may use to leverage lessons learned from the pandemic to strengthen care systems for these neglected diseases.
Authors’ addresses: Andrew Y. Chang, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, Stanford Cardiovascular Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and Center for Innovation in Global Health, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Liesl Zühlke, South African Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, and Cape Heart Institute, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, E-mail: email@example.com. Antonio Luiz P. Ribeiro, Telehealth Center and Cardiology Service, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, and Department of Internal Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Michele Barry, Center for Innovation in Global Health, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, and Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, E-mail: email@example.com. Emmy Okello, Department of Adult and Pediatric Cardiology, Uganda Heart Institute, Kampala, Uganda, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Chris T. Longenecker, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, and Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, E-mail: email@example.com.