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Variation in Pyrethroid Resistance Phenotypes in Anopheles darlingi in an Area with Residual Malaria Transmission: Warning of Suspected Resistance in French Guiana

Samuel VezeneghoInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Romuald CarinciInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Jean IssalyInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Christophe NguyenUnité de Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département de Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Marseille, France;
Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU—Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France;

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Pascal GaboritInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Laetitia FerraroInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Guillaume LacourInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Emilie MosnierUnité des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, rue des Flamboyants, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;
Aix Marseille University, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l’Information Médicale, Marseille, France;

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Vincent Pommier de SantiAix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU—Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France;
Centre d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique des Armées, Marseille, France;

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Yanouk EpelboinInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;

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Romain GirodInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;
Unité d’Entomologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar;

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Sebastien BriolantUnité de Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département de Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Marseille, France;
Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU—Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France;

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Isabelle DusfourInstitut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France;
Département de Santé Globale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France;
MIVEGEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France

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ABSTRACT.

Anopheles darlingi is the main vector of malaria in South America. In French Guiana, malaria transmission occurs inland and along the rivers with a regular reemergence in the lower Oyapock area. Control against malaria vectors includes indoor residual spraying of deltamethrin and the distribution of long-lasting impregnated bednets. In this context, the level of resistance to pyrethroids was monitored for 4 years using CDC bottle tests in An. darlingi populations. A loss of susceptibility to pyrethroids was recorded with 30-minute knock-down measured as low as 81%. However, no pyrethroid molecular resistance was found by sequencing a 170 base pair fragment of the S6 segment of domain II of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. Fluctuation of resistance phenotypes may be influenced by the reintroduction of susceptible alleles from sylvatic populations or by other mechanisms of metabolic resistance.

Author Notes

Address correspondence to Isabelle Dusfour, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMR MIVEGEC, ESV, 911 Avenus d'Agropolis, 34934 Montpellier Cedex, France. E-mail: isabelle.dusfour@pasteur.fr

These authors contributed equally to this work.

Financial support: This work was funded by the “Agence Régionale de Santé de la Guyane” through a yearly grant to support vector control and by the French Army (Grant LR607e). YE and GL salaries were funded by FEDER “CONTROLE,” project n° Synergie: GY0010695.

Authors’ addresses: Samuel Vezenegho, Romuald Carinci, and Jean Issaly, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France, E-mails: vsambumuh@yahoo.com, rcarinci@pasteur-cayenne.fr, and jissaly@pasteur-cayenne.fr. Christophe Nguyen, Unité de Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département de Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Marseille, France, and Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU—Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France, E-mail: christophenguyen2005@gmail.com. Pascal Gaborit, Laetitia Ferraro, and Guillaume Lacour, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France, E-mails: pgaborit@pasteur-cayenne.fr, laetitia.ferraro@yahoo.fr, and glacour.84@gmail.com. Emilie Mosnier, Unité des Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre Hospitalier Andrée Rosemon, rue des Flamboyants, Cayenne, French Guiana, France and Aix Marseille University, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l’Information Médicale, Marseille, France, E-mail: emilie.mosnier@gmail.com. Vincent Pommier de Santi, Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU—Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France, and Centre d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique des Armées, Marseille, France, E-mail: v.pommierdesanti@gmail.com. Yanouk Epelboin, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France, E-mail: yanoukepelboin@hotmail.com. Romain Girod, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France, and Unité d’Entomologie Médicale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar, E-mail: rgirod@pasteur.mg. Sebastien Briolant, Unité de Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département de Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Marseille, France, and Aix Marseille Université, IRD, AP-HM, SSA, UMR Vecteurs—Infections Tropicales et Méditerranéennes (VITROME), IHU—Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France, E-mail: sbriolant@wanadoo.fr. Isabelle Dusfour, Institut Pasteur de la Guyane, Vectopôle Amazonien Emile Abonnenc, Cayenne, French Guiana, France, Département de Santé Globale, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, and MIVEGEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France, E-mail: isabelle.dusfour@pasteur.fr.

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