Buonfrate D, Bisanzio D, Giorli G, Odermatt P, Fürst T, Greenaway C, French M, Reithinger R, Gobbi F, Montresor A, 2020. The global prevalence of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Pathogens 9: 468.
Fleitas PE, Kehl SD, Lopez W, Travacio M, Nieves E, Gil JF, Cimino RO, Krolewiecki AJ, 2022. Mapping the global distribution of Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms by ecological niche modeling. Parasit Vectors 15: 1–12.
Salvador F, Sulleiro E, Sánchez-Montalvá A, Saugar JM, Rodríguez E, Pahissa A, Molina I, 2014. Usefulness of Strongyloides stercoralis serology in the management of patients with eosinophilia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 830–834.
Noordin R, Osman E, Kalantari N, Anuar NS, Gorgani-Firouzjaee T, Sithithaworn P, Juri NM, Rahumatullah A, 2022. A point-of-care cassette test for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis. Acta Trop 226: 106251.
Bisoffi Z et al., 2014. Diagnostic accuracy of five serologic tests for Strongyloides stercoralis infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8: 38.
Buonfrate D, Marrone R, Silva R, Mirisola C, Ragusa A, Mistretta M, Perandin F, Bisoffi Z, 2021. Prevalence of strongyloidiasis in a cohort of migrants in Italy and accuracy of a novel ELISA assay for S. stercoralis infection, a cross-sectional study. Microorganisms 9: 401.
Ghosh K, Ghosh K, 2007. Strongyloides stercoralis septicaemia following steroid therapy for eosinophilia: report of three cases. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 1163–1165.
Lu Y, Ramachandran V, Mahanty S, Rawlinson WD, 2022. Comparison of Strongyloides-specific IgG enzyme immunoassays for laboratory detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. Pathology 54: 127–129.
Tamarozzi F, Longoni SS, Mazzi C, Rizzi E, Noordin R, Buonfrate D, 2022. Theaccuracy of a recombinant antigen immunochromatographic test for the detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in migrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Parasit Vectors 15: 1–7.
Arifin N, Hanafiah KM, Ahmad H, Noordin R, 2019. Serodiagnosis and early detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 52: 371–378.
Lillibridge JP, 1989. Prominence of IgG4 antibodies in the human responses to Strongyloides stercoralis infection. J Infect Dis 160: 692–699.
Osman E, Amin NA, Noon TPM, Lahat SNH, Rosli MS, Sham SF, Periyasamy PR, Ghazali N, Abd Manap SNA, Noordin R, 2022. Comparison of two serological assays in detecting Strongyloides infection in immunocompromised patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 107: 636–639.
Van Doorn HR, Koelewijn R, Hofwegen H, Gilis H, Wetsteyn JCFM, Wismans PJ, Sarfati C, Vervoort T, Van Gool T, 2007. Use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and dipstick assay for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis infection in humans. J Clin Microbiol 45: 438–442.
Dewi RM, Tuti S, Ganefa S, Anwar C, Larasati R, Ariyanti E, Herjati H, Brady M, 2015. Brugia RapidTM antibody responses in communities of Indonesia in relation to the results of “transmission assessment surveys” (TAS) for the lymphatic filariasis elimination program. Parasit Vectors 8: 1–6.
Supali T, Djuardi Y, Lomiga A, Linda SN, Iskandar E, Goss CW, Miller JP, Weil GJ, Fischer PU, 2019. Comparison of the impact of annual and semiannual mass drug administration on lymphatic filariasis prevalence in Flores Island, Indonesia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 100: 336.
Djuardi Y, Jannah IF, Supali T, 2022. IgG4 antibodies against Bm14 as an evaluation tool of mass drug administration in a co-endemic area of Brugia timori and Wuchereria bancrofti. Acta Trop 227: 106278.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||58||58||7|
Approximately 600 million people worldwide are infected with Strongyloides stercoralis. Many diagnostic laboratories use serology to detect the infection. SsRapid® is a prototype IgG4 lateral flow test based on NIE recombinant protein. We compared SsRapid with two commercial IgG-ELISAs (Bordier and Euroimmun) using five sera groups (G1–5, N = 170). Healthy individuals from nonendemic areas (G1, N = 33) and Strongyloides larvae-positive patients (G2, N = 20) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among the three assays. The group of other parasitic infections (G3) showed that SsRapid results were more concordant with Bordier ELISA (73%, 35/48) than Euroimmun ELISA (65%, 31/48). In corticosteroid-treated cancer patients who were polymerase chain reaction–positive for Strongyloides (G4, N = 25), SsRapid showed a higher detection rate (28%, 7/25) than both ELISAs (4%, 1/25). Meanwhile, SsRapid showed significantly less infection prevalence among the endemic area population (G5) than the ELISAs. Overall, SsRapid showed good performance in detecting Strongyloides infection compared with the commercial IgG-ELISAs.
Financial support: This study was funded by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) MyLAB grant 1/2018 (No 203.CIPPM.6730142).
Disclosure: R. Noordin and NS Anuar are named as inventors of SsRapid® test, which has been licensed by the Universiti Sains Malaysia to Accobiotech Sdn. Bhd.
Authors’ addresses: Nor Suhada Anuar, Anizah Rahumatullah, and Rahmah Noordin, Institute for Research in Molecular Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Norashikin Samsudin, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, and Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Kota Samarahan, Malaysia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Zeehaida Mohamed and Nik Zairi Zakaria, Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia, and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia. E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org. Emelia Osman, Department of Parasitology and Medical Entomology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Cheras, Malaysia, E-mail: email@example.com. Hussain Ahmad, Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.